24 CFR Part 51 - Environmental Criteria and Standards

Subpart B - Noise Abatement and Control
51.100 Purpose and Authority
51.101 General policy
51.102 Responsibilities
51.103 Criteria and standards
51.104 Special requirements
51.105 Exceptions
51.106 Implementation

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Sec. 51.100 Purpose and authority.

a. It is the purpose of this subpart B to:
  1. Call attention to the threat of noise pollution;
  2. Encourage the control of noise at its source in cooperation with other Federal departments and agencies;
  3. Encourage land use patterns for housing and other noise sensitive urban needs that will provide a suitable separation between them and major noise sources;
  4. Generally prohibit HUD support for new construction of noise sensitive uses on sites having unacceptable noise exposure;
  5. Provide policy on the use of structural and other noise attenuation measures where needed; and
  6. Provide policy to guide implementation of various HUD programs.
b. Authority. Specific authorities for noise abatement and control are contained in the Noise Control Act of 1972, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4901 et seq.); and the General Services Administration, Federal Management Circular 75-2; Compatible Land Uses at Federal Airfields.

[44 FR 40861, July 12, 1979, as amended at 61 FR 13333, Mar. 26, 1996]

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Sec. 51.101 General policy.

a. It is HUD's general policy to provide minimum national standards applicable to HUD programs to protect citizens against excessive noise in their communities and places of residence.
  1. Planning assistance. HUD requires that grantees give adequate consideration to noise exposures and sources of noise as an integral part of the urban environment when HUD assistance is provided for planning purposes, as follows:

    i. Particular emphasis shall be placed on the importance of compatible land use planning in relation to airports, highways and other sources of high noise.

    ii. Applicants shall take into consideration HUD environmental standards impacting the use of land.

  2. Activities subject to 24 CFR part 58.

    i. Responsible entities under 24 CFR part 58 must take into consideration the noise criteria and standards in the environmental review process and consider ameliorative actions when noise sensitive land development is proposed in noise exposed areas. Responsible entities shall address deviations from the standards in their environmental reviews as required in 24 CFR part 58.

    ii. Where activities are planned in a noisy area, and HUD assistance is contemplated later for housing and/or other noise sensitive activities, the responsible entity risks denial of the HUD assistance unless the HUD standards are met.


  3. HUD support for new construction. HUD assistance for the construction of new noise sensitive uses is prohibited generally for projects with unacceptable noise exposures and is discouraged for projects with normally unacceptable noise exposure. (Standards of acceptability are contained in Sec. 51.103(c).) This policy applies to all HUD programs providing assistance, subsidy or insurance for housing, manufactured home parks, nursing homes, hospitals, and all programs providing assistance or insurance for land development, redevelopment or any other provision of facilities and services which are directed to making land available for housing or noise sensitive development. The policy does not apply to research demonstration projects which do not result in new construction or reconstruction, flood insurance, interstate land sales registration, or any action or emergency assistance under disaster assistance provisions or appropriations which are provided to save lives, protect property, protect public health and safety, remove debris and wreckage, or assistance that has the effect of restoring facilities substantially as they existed prior to the disaster.
  4. HUD support for existing construction. Noise exposure by itself will not result in the denial of HUD support for the resale and purchase of otherwise acceptable existing buildings. However, environmental noise is a marketability factor which HUD will consider in determining the amount of insurance or other assistance that may be given.
  5. HUD support of modernization and rehabilitation. For modernization projects located in all noise exposed areas, HUD shall encourage noise attenuation features in alterations. For major or substantial rehabilitation projects in the Normally Unacceptable and Unacceptable noise zones, HUD actively shall seek to have project sponsors incorporate noise attenuation features, given the extent and nature of the rehabilitation being undertaken and the level or exterior noise exposure. In Unacceptable noise zones, HUD shall strongly encourage conversion of noise-exposed sites to land uses compatible with the high noise levels.
  6. Research, guidance and publications. HUD shall maintain a continuing program designed to provide new knowledge of noise abatement and control to public and private bodies, to develop improved methods for anticipating noise encroachment, to develop noise abatement measures through land use and building construction practices, and to foster better understanding of the consequences of noise. It shall be HUD's policy to issue guidance documents periodically to assist HUD personnel in assigning an acceptability category to projects in accordance with noise exposure standards, in evaluating noise attenuation measures, and in advising local agencies about noise abatement strategies. The guidance documents shall be updated periodically in accordance with advances in the state-of-the-art.
  7. Construction equipment, building equipment and appliances. HUD shall encourage the use of quieter construction equipment and methods in population centers, the use of quieter equipment and appliances in buildings, and the use of appropriate noise abatement techniques in the design of residential structures with potential noise problems.
  8. Exterior noise goals. It is a HUD goal that exterior noise levels do not exceed a day-night average sound level of 55 decibels. This level is recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency as a goal for outdoors in residential areas. The levels recommended by EPA are not standards and do not take into account cost or feasibility. For the purposes of this regulation and to meet other program objectives, sites with a day-night average sound level of 65 and below are acceptable and are allowable (see Standards in Sec. 51.103(c)).
  9. Interior noise goals. It is a HUD goal that the interior auditory environment shall not exceed a day-night average sound level of 45 decibels. Attenuation measures to meet these interior goals shall be employed where feasible. Emphasis shall be given to noise sensitive interior spaces such as bedrooms. Minimum attenuation requirements are prescribed in Sec. 51.104(a).
  10. Acoustical privacy in multifamily buildings. HUD shall require the use of building design and acoustical treatment to afford acoustical privacy in multifamily buildings pursuant to requirements of the Minimum Property Standards.
[44 FR 40861, July 12, 1979, as amended at 50 FR 9268, Mar. 7, 1985; 61 FR 13333, Mar. 26, 1996]

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Sec. 51.102 Responsibilities.

a. Surveillance of noise problem areas. Appropriate field staff shall maintain surveillance of potential noise problem areas and advise local officials, developers, and planning groups of the unacceptability of sites because of noise exposure at the earliest possible time in the decision process. Every attempt shall be made to insure that applicants' site choices are consistent with the policy and standards contained herein.

b. Notice to applicants. At the earliest possible stage, HUD program staff shall:
  1. Determine the suitability of the acoustical environment of proposed projects;
  2. Notify applicants of any adverse or questionable situations; and
  3. Assure that prospective applicants are apprised of the standards contained herein so that future site choices will be consistent with these standards.
c. Interdepartmental coordination. HUD shall foster appropriate coordination between field offices and other departments and agencies, particularly the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Transportation, Department of Defense representatives, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. HUD staff shall utilize the acceptability standards in commenting on the prospective impacts of transportation facilities and other noise generators in the Environmental Impact Statement review process.

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Sec. 51.103 Criteria and standards.

These standards apply to all programs as indicated in Sec. 51.101.

a. Measure of external noise environments. The magnitude of the external noise environment at a site is determined by the value of the day-night average sound level produced as the result of the accumulation of noise from all sources contributing to the external noise environment at the site. Day-night average sound level, abbreviated as DNL and symbolized as Ldn, is the 24-hour average sound level, in decibels, obtained after addition of 10 decibels to sound levels in the night from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m. Mathematical expressions for average sound level and day-night average sound level are stated in the Appendix I to this subpart.

b. Loud impulsive sounds. On an interim basis, when loud impulsive sounds, such as explosions or sonic booms, are experienced at a site, the day-night average sound level produced by the loud impulsive sounds alone shall have 8 decibels added to it in assessing the acceptability of the site (see Appendix I to this subpart). Alternatively, the C-weighted day-night average sound level (LCdn) may be used without the 8 decibel addition, as indicated in Sec. 51.106(a)(3). Methods for assessing the contribution of loud impulsive sounds to day-night average sound level at a site and mathematical expressions for determining whether a sound is classed as "loud impulsive" are provided in the Appendix I to this subpart.

c. Exterior standards.
  1. The degree of acceptability of the noise environment at a site is determined by the sound levels external to buildings or other facilities containing noise sensitive uses. The standards shall usually apply at a location 2 meters (6.5 feet) from the building housing noise sensitive activities in the direction of the predominant noise source. Where the building location is undetermined, the standards shall apply 2 meters (6.5 feet) from the building setback line nearest to the predominant noise source. The standards shall also apply at other locations where it is determined that quiet outdoor space is required in an area ancillary to the principal use on the site.
  2. The noise environment inside a building is considered acceptable if:

    i. The noise environment external to the building complies with these standards, and

    ii. the building is constructed in a manner common to the area or, if of uncommon construction, has at least the equivalent noise attenuation characteristics.

Site Acceptability Standards
  Day-night average sound level (in decibels)
Special approvals and requirements
Acceptable Not exceeding 65 dB(1) None
Normally Unacceptable Above 65 dB but not exceeding 75 dB. Special Approvals (2)
Environmental Review (3)
Attenuation (4)
Unacceptable Above 75 dB Special Approvals (2)
Environmental Review (3)
Attenuation (5)

Notes:
  1. Acceptable threshold may be shifted to 70 dB in special circumstances pursuant to Sec. 51.105(a).
  2. See Sec. 51.104(b) for requirements.
  3. See Sec. 51.104(b) for requirements.
  4. 5 dB additional attenuation required for sites above 65 dB but not exceeding 70 dB and 10 dB additional attenuation required for sites above 70 dB but not exceeding 75 dB. (See Sec. 51.104(a).)
  5. Attenuation measures to be submitted to the Assistant Secretary for CPD for approval on a case-by-case basis.
[44 FR 40861, July 12, 1979, as amended at 49 FR 12214, Mar. 29, 1984]

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Sec. 51.104 Special requirements.

a. Noise attenuation. Noise attenuation measures are those required in addition to attenuation provided by buildings as commonly constructed in the area, and requiring open windows for ventilation. Measures that reduce external noise at a site shall be used wherever practicable in preference to the incorporation of additional noise attenuation in buildings. Building designs and construction techniques that provide more noise attenuation than typical construction may be employed also to meet the noise attenuation requirements.
  1. Normally unacceptable noise zones and unacceptable noise zones. Approvals in Normally Unacceptable Noise Zones require a minimum of 5 decibels additional sound attenuation for buildings having noise-sensitive uses if the day-night average sound level is greater than 65 decibels but does not exceed 70 decibels, or a minimum of 10 decibels of additional sound attenuation if the day-night average sound level is greater than 70 decibels but does not exceed 75 decibels.
  2. Noise attenuation measures in Unacceptable Noise Zones require the approval of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development, or the Certifying Officer for activities subject to 24 CFR part 58. (See Sec. 51.104(b)(2).)
b. Environmental review requirements. Environmental reviews shall be conducted pursuant to the requirements of 24 CFR parts 50 and 58, as applicable, or other environmental regulations issued by the Department. These requirements are hereby modified for all projects proposed in the Normally Unacceptable and Unacceptable noise exposure zones as follows:
  1. Normally unacceptable noise zone.

    i. All projects located in the Normally Unacceptable Noise Zone require a Special Environmental Clearance except an EIS is required for a proposed project located in a largely undeveloped area, or where the HUD action is likely to encourage the establishment of incompatible land use in this noise zone.

    ii. When an EIS is required, the concurrence of the Program Assistant Secretary is also required before a project can be approved. For the purposes of this paragraph, an area will be considered as largely undeveloped unless the area within a 2-mile radius of the project boundary is more than 50 percent developed for urban uses and infrastructure (particularly water and sewers) is available and has capacity to serve the project.

    iii. All other projects in the Normally Unacceptable zone require a Special Environmental Clearance, except where an EIS is required for other reasons pursuant to HUD environmental policies.

  2. Unacceptable noise zone. An EIS is required prior to the approval of projects with unacceptable noise exposure. Projects in or partially in an Unacceptable Noise Zone shall be submitted to the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development, or the Certifying Officer for activities subject to 24 CFR part 58, for approval. The Assistant Secretary or the Certifying Officer may waive the EIS requirement in cases where noise is the only environmental issue and no outdoor noise sensitive activity will take place on the site. In such cases, an environmental review shall be made pursuant to the requirements of 24 CFR parts 50 or 58, as appropriate.
[44 FR 40861, July 12, 1979, as amended at 61 FR 13333, Mar. 26, 1996]

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Sec. 51.105 Exceptions.

a. Flexibility for non-acoustic benefits. Where it is determined that program objectives cannot be achieved on sites meeting the acceptability standard of 65 decibels, the Acceptable Zone may be shifted to Ldn 70 on a case-by-case basis if all the following conditions are satisfied:
  1. The project does not require an Environmental Impact Statement under provisions of Sec. 51.104(b)(1) and noise is the only environmental issue.
  2. The project has received a Special Environmental Clearance and has received the concurrence of the Environmental Clearance Officer.
  3. The project meets other program goals to provide housing in proximity to employment, public facilities and transportation.
  4. The project is in conformance with local goals and maintains the character of the neighborhood.
  5. The project sponsor has set forth reasons, acceptable to HUD, as to why the noise attenuation measures that would normally be required for new construction in the Ldn 65 to Ldn 70 zone cannot be met.
  6. Other sites which are not exposed to noise above Ldn 65 and which meet program objectives are generally not available.
The above factors shall be documented and made part of the project file.

[44 FR 40861, July 12, 1979, as amended at 61 FR 13334, Mar. 26, 1996]

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Sec. 51.106 Implementation.

a. Use of available data. HUD field staff shall make maximum use of noise data prepared by others when such data are determined to be current and adequately projected into the future and are in terms of the following:
  1. Sites in the vicinity of airports. The noise environment around airports is described sometimes in terms of Noise Exposure Forecasts, abbreviated as NEF or, in the State of California, as Community Noise Equivalent Level, abbreviated as CNEL. The noise environment for sites in the vicinity of airports for which day-night average sound level data are not available may be evaluated from NEF or CNEL analyses using the following conversions to DNL: DNL NEF+35 DNL CNEL
  2. Sites in the vicinity of highways. Highway projects receiving Federal aid are subject to noise analyses under the procedures of the Federal Highway Administration. Where such analyses are available they may be used to assess sites subject to the requirements of this standard. The Federal Highway Administration employs two alternate sound level descriptors: (i) The A-weighted sound level not exceeded more than 10 percent of the time for the highway design hour traffic flow, symbolized as L10; or (ii) the equivalent sound level for the design hour, symbolized as Leq. The day-night average sound level may be estimated from the design hour L10 or Leq values by the following relationships, provided heavy trucks do not exceed 10 percent of the total traffic flow in vehicles per 24 hours and the traffic flow between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. does not exceed 15 percent of the average daily traffic flow in vehicles per 24 hours: DNL L10 (design hour)--3 decibels DNL Leg (design hour) decibels Where the auto/truck mix and time of day relationships as stated in this section do not exist, the HUD Noise Assessment Guidelines or other noise analysis shall be used.
  3. Sites in the vicinity of installations producing loud impulsive sounds. Certain Department of Defense installations produce loud impulsive sounds from artillery firing and bombing practice ranges. Noise analyses for these facilities sometimes encompass sites that may be subject to the requirements of this standard. Where such analyses are available they may be used on an interim basis to establish the acceptability of sites under this standard. The Department of Defense uses day-night average sound level based on C-weighted sound level, symbolized LCdn, for the analysis of loud impulsive sounds. Where such analyses are provided, the 8 decibel addition specified in Sec. 51.103(b), is not required, and the same numerical values of day-night average sound level used on an interim basis to determine site suitability for non-impulsive sounds apply to the LCdn.
  4. Use of areawide acoustical data. HUD encourages the preparation and use of areawide acoustical information, such as noise contours for airports. Where such new or revised contours become available for airports (civil or military) and military installations they shall first be referred to the HUD State Office (Environmental Officer) for review, evaluation and decision on appropriateness for use by HUD. The HUD State Office shall submit revised contours to the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development for review, evaluation and decision whenever the area affected is changed by 20 percent or more, or whenever it is determined that the new contours will have a significant effect on HUD programs, or whenever the contours are not provided in a methodology acceptable under Sec. 51.106(a)(1) or in other cases where the HUD State Office determines that Headquarters review is warranted. For other areawide acoustical data, review is required only where existing areawide data are being utilized and where such data have been changed to reflect changes in the measurement methodology or underlying noise source assumptions. Requests for determination on usage of new or revised areawide data shall include the following:

    i. Maps showing old, if applicable, and new noise contours, along with brief description of data source and methodology.

    ii. Impact on existing and prospective urbanized areas and on development activity.

    iii. Impact on HUD-assisted projects currently in processing.

    iv. Impact on future HUD program activity. Where a field office has determined that immediate approval of new areawide data is necessary and warranted in limited geographic areas, the request for approval should state the circumstances warranting such approval. Actions on proposed projects shall not be undertaken while new areawide noise data are being considered for HUD use except where the proposed location is affected in the same manner under both the old and new noise data.
b. Site assessments. Compliance with the standards contained in Sec. 51.103(c) shall, where necessary, be determined using noise assessment guidelines, handbooks, technical documents and procedures issued by the Department.

c. Variations in site noise levels. In many instances the noise environment will vary across a site, with portions of the site being in an Acceptable noise environment and other portions in a Normally Unacceptable noise environment. The standards in Sec. 51.103(c) shall apply to the portions of a building or buildings used for residential purposes and for ancillary noise sensitive open spaces.

d. Noise measurements. Where noise assessments result in a finding that the site is borderline or questionable, or is controversial, noise measurements may be performed. Where it is determined that noise measurements are required, such measurements will be conducted in accordance with methods and measurement criteria established by the Department. Locations for noise measurements will depend on the location of noise sensitive uses that are nearest to the predominant noise source (see Sec. 51.103(c)).

e. Projections of noise exposure. In addition to assessing existing exposure, future conditions should be projected. To the extent possible, noise exposure shall be projected to be representative of conditions that are expected to exist at a time at least 10 years beyond the date of the project or action under review.

f. Reduction of site noise by use of berms and/or barriers. If it is determined by adequate analysis that a berm and/or barrier will reduce noise at a housing site, and if the barrier is existing or there are assurances that it will be in place prior to occupancy, the environmental noise analysis for the site may reflect the benefits afforded by the berm and/or barrier. In the environmental review process under Sec. 51.104(b), the location height and design of the berm and/or barrier shall be evaluated to determine its effectiveness, and impact on design and aesthetic quality, circulation and other environmental factors.

[44 FR 40861, July 12, 1979, as amended at 61 FR 13334, Mar. 26, 1996]

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Appendix I to Subpart B to Part 51--Definition of Acoustical Quantities
  1. Sound Level. The quantity in decibels measured with an instrument satisfying requirements of American National Standard Specification for Type 1 Sound Level Meters S1.4-1971. Fast time-averaging and A-frequency weighting are to be used, unless others are specified. The sound level meter with the A-weighting is progressively less sensitive to sounds of frequency below 1,000 hertz (cycles per second), somewhat as is the ear. With fast time averaging the sound level meter responds particularly to recent sounds almost as quickly as does the ear in judging the loudness of a sound.
  2. Average Sound Level. Average sound level, in decibels, is the level of the mean-square A-weighted sound pressure during the stated time period, with reference to the square of the standard reference sound pressure of 20 micropascals.Day-night average sound level, abbreviated as DNL, and symbolized mathematically as Ldn is defined as:[GRAPHIC OMITTED] Time t is in seconds, so the limits shown in hours and minutes are actually interpreted in seconds. LA(t) is the time varying value of A-weighted sound level, the quantity in decibels measured by an instrument satisfying requirements of American National Standard Specification for Type 1 Sound Level Meters S1.4-1971.3.
  3. Loud Impulsive Sounds. When loud impulsive sounds such as sonic booms or explosions are anticipated contributors to the noise environment at a site, the contribution to day-night average sound level produced by the loud impulsive sounds shall have 8 decibels added to it in assessing the acceptability of a site. A loud impulsive sound is defined for the purpose of this regulation as one for which:

    i. The sound is definable as a discrete event wherein the sound level increases to a maximum and then decreases in a total time interval of approximately one second or less to the ambient background level that exists without the sound; and

    ii. The maximum sound level (obtained with slow averaging time and A-weighting of a Type 1 sound level meter whose characteristics comply with ANSI S1.4-1971) exceeds the sound level prior to the onset of the event by at least 6 decibels; and

    iii. The maximum sound level obtained with fast averaging time of a sound level meter exceeds the maximum value obtained with slow averaging time by at least 4 decibels.

    [44 FR 40861, July 12, 1979; 49 FR 10253, Mar. 20, 1984; 49 FR 12214, Mar. 29, 1984]

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